Search &/or Print the WIOA Policy Manual

Table of Contents

Chapter 2) The One-Stop (Job Center) Delivery System

Chapter 3) Program Funding and Grants Management

Chapter 4) Fiscal Management

Chapter 5) Non-Discrimination/Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action

Chapter 6) Complaints, Grievances, and Appeals

Chapter 7) Individual Training Accounts and Eligible Training Programs



Chapter 8) Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs

Chapter 9) Rapid Response

Chapter 12) File Documentation



WIOA Title I-A & I-B Policy & Procedure Manual
Ch. 10) Youth Program

10.5 Youth Program Elements



10.5.3 Descriptions of the 14 Youth Program Elements

Effective date: ___________

Program Element 1: Tutoring, study skills training, instruction, and dropout prevention and dropout recovery
services1

The services under this program element help lead the participant towards the completion of a high school diploma, its recognized equivalent2 or a recognized postsecondary credential.3 Services are intended to keep youth in school and engaged in a formal learning or training setting. Examples include:

  • academic support such as tutoring;
  • helping youth identify areas of academic concern;
  • assisting with overcoming learning obstacles;
  • providing tools and resources to develop learning strategies;
  • literacy development;
  • active learning experiences;
  • after-school opportunities; and
  • individualized instruction.4

Depending on the service involved, local WDBs may find it appropriate to provide these services one-on-one, in a group setting, by referring participants to resources in the community, and/or through workshops.5

For ASSET reporting purposes, dropout recovery services aimed at youth who withdrew from postsecondary training/education prior to successful completion are documented under this element.6 Career planners must use element 2, "alternative secondary school services or high school dropout recovery services," to document any dropout recovery services aimed at getting a youth who has dropped out of high school back into high school or an alternative secondary school/equivalency program.7

Program Element 2: Alternative secondary school services or high school dropout recovery services

The services under this program element are intended to help youth who (a) have dropped out of high school OR (b) are currently struggling with traditional high school and would benefit from an alternative secondary school program.8 Services are aimed at reengaging youth so they pursue education that leads to the completion of high school diploma or its recognized equivalent.9 Examples of services include:

  • basic education skills training;
  • individualized academic instruction;
  • English language learning;
  • counseling related to re-engaging youth in secondary education;
  • educational plan development;
  • preparation for high school equivalency attainment (for high school dropouts only); and
  • educating youth about alternative secondary school programs within the school district and helping them through the process of connecting to an appropriate program. 10

Program Element 3: Paid and unpaid work experience

The services under this program element provide planned, structured learning experiences that take place in a workplace for a limited period of time.11 Services are focused on providing participants with opportunities for career exploration and skill development.12 A participant's paid or unpaid work experience must be tied to the goals identified in his/her individual service strategy.13 Work experience may take place in the private for-profit sector, the non-profit sector, or the public sector and can be paid or unpaid, as appropriate.14 DWD-DET does not permit paid work experience within the workplace of the service provider or local WDB.

The following services may constitute work experience:

Note: DWD-DET requires pre-apprenticeship programs to be approved by the Wisconsin Apprenticeship Advisory Council.

This program element also includes any activities that help the youth prepare for the specific work experience.16

Labor standards apply in any work experience where an employee/employer relationship exists, as defined by the Fair Labor Standards Act or applicable state law.17 Additionally, Title I Youth Program funds may not be used to directly or indirectly aid in filling a job opening that is vacant because the former occupant is on strike or is being locked out in the course of a labor dispute, or the filling of which is otherwise an issue in a labor dispute involving a work stoppage.18

A work experience must include both academic and occupational education components.19 Academic and occupational education must be designed to provide participants with contextual learning that may occur concurrently or sequentially with the work experience and may occur inside or outside the work site.20 DWD-DET requires that both the academic and occupational education components of a participant's work experience relate to the same specific job or occupational area. While WIOA does not explicitly state this requirement, examples DOL provides in TEGL 21-16 (p. 16) show clear intent that the two work experience components will relate to the same specific job or occupational area.

Example: A work experience is at a hospital. The occupational education could be learning about the duties of a phlebotomist. The academic education could be learning about the different blood types and why it matters for blood transfusions. The participant might complete the academic component by reviewing an online module about blood types at home before hearing firsthand from a phlebotomist at the work site about his/her work responsibilities.

The work experience employer can provide the academic and occupational education, or it can be provided separately in the classroom or through other means.21 Local WDBs and/or their service providers have the flexibility to decide the appropriate type of academic and occupational education necessary for a specific work experience and who provides the education.22

Local WDBs must spend at least 20 percent of their WIOA Youth funding on services that fall under the work experience program element.23 DOL encourages local WDBs to coordinate work experiences, particularly local summer jobs programs, with other youth serving organizations and agencies, including Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Community Services Block Grant, and Community Development Block Grant programs.24

Program Element 4: Occupational skills training

The services under this program element involve engaging youth in occupational skills training program. Occupational skills training is an organized program of study that provides specific vocational skills that lead to proficiency in performing actual tasks and technical functions required by certain occupational fields at entry, intermediate, or advanced levels.25

Such training must meet all three of the following criteria:

  • be outcome-oriented and focused on an occupational goal specified in the individual service strategy;
  • be of sufficient duration to impart the skills needed to meet the occupational goal;
  • AND
  • lead to the attainment of a recognized postsecondary credential.26

Examples: Registered Apprenticeships, a Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) certification; a commercial driver's license (CDL); a one-year Accounting Assistant technical diploma from a technical college; or a two-year Machine Tooling technical diploma from a technical college.

Local WDBs may provide occupational skills training through any of the options discussed in section 10.5.2 as well as through Individual Training Accounts (ITAs) for OSY27 or ISY who are 18 or older and co-enrolled in the WIOA Adult Program.28

  • Note: The state's Eligible Training Provider List must be used to select ITA-funded training programs.29 If the training is funded through the WIOA Adult Program, the program's priority of service and training eligibility provisions apply.

Local areas must give priority consideration to training programs that lead to recognized postsecondary credentials that align with in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the local area.30 Career planners are responsible for helping youth make informed training choices.31

Program Element 5: Education offered concurrently with and in the same context as workforce preparation and training

Services within this program element reflect an integrated education and training model in which workforce preparation activities, basic academic skills education, and hands-on occupational skills training are taught within the same time frame and connected to a specific occupation, occupational cluster, or career pathway.32

Example: A youth learns how to apply basic measuring concepts using a tape measure while ensuring lumber is the correct length to meet blueprint specifications for a new building.

While a local WDB may offer basic academic skills education as part of alternative secondary school services and dropout recovery services (program element 2), workforce preparation activities as part of a work experience (program element 3), and occupational skills training (program element 4) separately and at different times, this program element refers only to the concurrent delivery of these services within an integrated education and training model.33 Common examples of services that follow an integrated education and training model are YouthBuild and Career Pathways GED/HSED programs offered by some technical colleges.

Program Element 6: Leadership development opportunities

The services under this program element are focused on encouraging responsibility, confidence, employability, self-determination, and other positive social and civic behaviors.34 Services include:

  • exposure to postsecondary educational possibilities;
  • community and service learning projects;
  • peer-centered activities, including peer mentoring and tutoring;
  • organizational and teamwork training, including team leadership training;
  • training in decision-making, including determining priorities and problem solving;
  • citizenship training, including life skills training such as parenting and work behavior training;
  • civic engagement activities which promote the quality of life in a community; and
  • other activities that place youth in a leadership role, such as serving on youth leadership committees (e.g., a Youth Standing Committee).35

Program Element 7: Supportive services

The purpose of the services under this program element is to enable individuals to participate in WIOA activities.36 Services include:

  • referrals to community programs/services and to state and federal public assistance programs;
  • transportation assistance;
  • child care and dependent care assistance;
  • housing assistance;
  • needs-related payments;
  • assistance with educational testing;
  • reasonable accommodations for disabilities;
  • services provided by legal aid organizations;
  • health care referrals;
  • uniforms, work attire, and work-related equipment/tools (e.g., eyeglasses and protective eye gear);
  • books, fees, school supplies for postsecondary education; and
  • payments/fees for employment and training-related applications, tests, certifications and licenses.37

Note on needs-related payments: WIOA regulations (20 CFR §§680.930-680.950) provide specific eligibility requirements for Adult and Dislocated Worker Program participants to receive needs-related payments (e.g., adults must be unemployed, not qualified for or receiving unemployment compensation, and enrolled in training services). However, as WIOA provides no similar direction on eligibility requirements for Youth Program participants, DWD-DET's interpretation is that local WDBs may set their own policies related to Youth Program participants' eligibility for needs-related payments; however, a local WDB must have appropriate policies and procedures in place before issuing any needs-related payments.

See the Supportive Services - Examples and Resource Guide for more information.

Program Element 8: Adult mentoring

This program element involves a formal relationship between a youth participant and an adult mentor that includes structured activities where the mentor offers guidance, support, and encouragement to help develop the youth's competence and character.38 While group mentoring activities and mentoring through electronic means are allowable services under this element, the youth must be matched with an individual mentor who provides some face-to-face interaction.39 This element may include workplace mentoring where the youth is matched with an employer or employee of a company.40

The mentoring services must last at least 12 months and may occur both during participation and as a follow-up service after program exit.41 To document mentoring services provided after a participant exits the program, the career planner must close the mentoring services in the ASSET Manage Services screen, and add mentoring services in the Manage Follow-ups screen.

Local WDBs are responsible for having appropriate processes in place to adequately screen and select mentors.42

While DOL strongly prefers that career planners not serve as mentors, they may in areas where adult mentors are scarce.43

Program Element 9: Comprehensive guidance and counseling

Services under this program element are focused on individualized counseling for participants and include:

  • drug and alcohol abuse counseling; and
  • mental health counseling.

Services may be provided by partner programs when the resources needed do not exist within the local program.44 If the local program refers participants to outside counseling services, it must coordinate with the referral organization to ensure continuity of service.45

Program Element 10: Financial literacy education

Services under this program element are intended to help youth acquire the knowledge, skills, and confidence to make informed and effective decisions with their financial resources.46 The goal is to help youth attain greater financial health and stability by providing high quality, age-appropriate, relevant, and where possible, customized services.47 Services include:

  • helping participants create budgets and open checking and savings accounts;
  • helping participants learn how to effectively manage spending, credit, and debt, including student loans and consumer credit;
  • teaching participants the significance of credit reports and scores, their rights regarding credit and financial information, how to assure accuracy of a credit report and correct inaccuracies, and how to improve or maintain good credit;
  • helping participants understand, evaluate, and compare financial products, services, and opportunities;
  • educating participants about identity theft, ways they can protect themselves from identify theft and resolve cases of it, and their rights and protections related to personal and financial data;
  • benefits planning and work incentives benefits counseling for youth with disabilities; and
  • providing age appropriate and timely financial education that presents opportunities to put lessons into practice, such as by access to safe and affordable financial products that enable money management and savings.48

Note: Career planners may find the Budget Planner in CEPT useful when working with Youth Program participants. The Budget Planner is also available for registered users as a widget in MyJCW.

DOL provides a link to a "Incorporating Financial Capability into Youth Employment Programs" resource guide in TEGL 21-16 for ideas about how local WDBs can partner with local financial institutions to support the financial literacy of Youth Program participants.

Program Element 11: Entrepreneurial skills training

Services under this program element provide the basics of starting and operating a small business to develop the skills associated with entrepreneurship.49 Services include developing the ability to:

  • take initiative;
  • creatively seek out and identify business opportunities;
  • develop budgets and forecast resource needs;
  • understand various options for acquiring capital and the trade-offs associated with each option; and
  • communicate effectively and market oneself and one's ideas.50

Approaches to teaching youth entrepreneurial skills include, but are not limited to:

  • entrepreneurship education that introduces the youth to the values and basics of starting and running a business. Entrepreneurship education programs often guide youth through the development of a business plan and may include simulations of business start-up and operation.
  • enterprise development to help youth develop their own businesses by developing viable business ideas and accessing small loans or grants that are needed to begin business operation.
  • experiential programs that provide youth with experience in the day-to-day operation of a business. These programs may involve the development of a youth-run business that program participants work in and manage.51

Entrepreneurial skills training, like all other program elements, is available to participants regardless of age but must align with their individual service strategy goals.52

Program Element 12: Career Awareness, Career Exploration, and Career Counseling

Services under this program element (Career Awareness, Exploration, and Counseling) help youth make appropriate decisions about education/training and careers by providing them with information, advice, and support. Examples of services include:

  • providing labor market information (LMI) and employment information about in-demand industry sectors or occupations in the local area;
  • helping participants use different tools and applications to gather LMI and career information;
  • providing access to skill, ability, and/or interest inventories;
  • discussing state and local LMI with participants;
  • providing information about résumé preparation and/or assisting youth with résumé preparation;
  • assisting with interview skills;
  • discussing opportunities for work experience; and
  • discussing the long-term benefits of postsecondary education, such as increased earning power and career mobility.53

Note: Career planners may find the Employment Plan tool in CEPT and the Career Exploration and Employment Plan widgets in MyJCW useful when working with Youth Program participants.

Program Element 13: Postsecondary preparation and transition activities

Services under this program element prepare ISY and OSY for advancement to postsecondary education and training after attaining a high school diploma or its recognized equivalent.54 Examples of services include helping youth:

  • explore postsecondary education options including technical training schools, technical colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, and registered apprenticeship;
  • prepare for SAT/ACT testing;
  • connect to postsecondary education programs;
  • navigate admissions processes;
  • search and apply for scholarships and grants; and
  • accurately complete the proper financial aid applications.55

Program Element 14: Follow-up services

Services under this program element are provided after program exit to help ensure the youth is successful in employment and/or postsecondary education and training.56 Some follow-up services may include other program elements; to count as follow-up services, they must occur after the participant's exit date.57 Follow-up services include:

  • supportive services;
  • adult mentoring;
  • financial literacy education;
  • career awareness, exploration, and counseling services;
  • postsecondary education preparation and transition activities; and
  • contact with the participant's employer, including assistance in addressing work-related problems that arise.58

Follow-up services may begin immediately following the last expected date of service in the Youth Program (and any other program in which the participant is co-enrolled) when no future services are scheduled.59 Follow-up services do not cause a participant's exit date to change or trigger re-enrollment in the WIOA Youth Program.60

Local WDBs must report follow-up services in a manner that clearly differentiates them from those services provided prior to exit.61 To accomplish this, follow-up services must be reported in the "Manage Follow-ups" screen in ASSET.

Local WDBs must offer all youth participants the opportunity to receive follow-up services that align with their individual service strategy.62 Local WDBs must provide follow-up services for a minimum of 12 months, unless participants decline to receive follow-up services or cannot be located or contacted.63 Local programs must have policies in place to establish when a participant cannot be located or contacted.64

Follow-up services may be provided beyond 12 months at the discretion of the local WDB. The types of services provided, and the duration of services must be determined based on the needs of the individual and therefore, the type and intensity of follow-up services may differ for each participant. Unsuccessful attempts to contact a participant or contacts made simply to secure documentation for program performance indicators do not count as follow-up services.65




Recognized Postsecondary Credential

A recognized postsecondary credential is:

  • an industry-recognized certificate or certification
  • a certificate of completion of a Registered Apprenticeship
  • a license recognized by the state or federal government
  • OR
  • an associate or bachelor's degree.

WIOA Sec. 3(52)

Note: DOL has indicated a hesitation to define "industry recognized credential" because it is "an evolving term and defining it in the regulation may limit future innovation around industry-relevant training." 81 FR 56172



Internship

An internship provides students and recent graduates with the opportunity to expand and connect classroom learning under supervision in a work-based context. An internship is grounded in experiential learning with an emphasis on self-reflection and on-the-job professional experience in an occupational career field of the intern’s choice.

U.S. Department of Labor, Inclusive Internship Programs: A How-to Guide for Employers



Pre-Apprenticeship

A pre-apprenticeship program prepares individuals to enter and succeed in a registered apprenticeship program and has the following:

  1. curriculum that aligns with the skill needs of employers in the economy of the state or region involved;
  2. access to educational and career counseling and other supportive services, directly or indirectly;
  3. hands-on, meaningful learning activities that are connected to education and training activities, such as exploring career options, and understanding how the skills acquired through coursework can be applied toward a future career;
  4. opportunities to attain at least one industry-recognized credential; and
  5. a documented partnership with one or more registered apprenticeship programs that assists in placing individuals who complete the pre- apprenticeship program in a registered apprenticeship program.

20 CFR § 681.480; 81 FR 56124



Job Shadowing

Job shadowing is temporary, unpaid, firsthand exposure to the workplace in an occupational area that the participant has an interest in. It is designed to increase career awareness, see occupational skills in practice, and help youth see the link between academic classroom learning and work requirements. It can be anywhere from a few hours to a week or more and involves a youth learning about a job by walking through the work day with a competent worker.

TEGL 21-16, p. 16



On-the-Job Training

On-the-job training is training provided by an employer to a paid participant while engaged in productive work in a job that:

  • provides knowledge or skills essential to the full and adequate performance of the job;
  • provides reimbursement to the employer of up to 50 percent of the wage rate of the participant, for the extraordinary costs of providing the training and additional supervision related to the training; and
  • is limited in duration as appropriate to the occupation for which the participant is being trained, taking into account the training content and the participant's prior work experience and individual service strategy.

WIOA Sec. 3(44)



Public Assistance

"Public Assistance" means federal, state, or local government cash payments where eligibility is determined by a needs or income test.

WIOA Sec. 3(50)



Individual Training Account

"Individual Training Account (ITA)" means a payment agreement established on behalf of a participant with a training provider to purchase training services.

20 CFR § 680.300



In-Demand Occupation

An in-demand occupation is:

a) an occupation in an industry sector that:

  • has substantial current or potential impact (including through jobs leading to economic self-sufficiency and opportunities for advancement) on the state, regional, or local economy, and
  • contributes to the growth or stability of other supporting businesses, or the growth of other industry sectors;

or

b) an occupation that currently has or is projected to have a number of positions (including positions leading to economic self-sufficiency and opportunities for advancement) in an industry sector so as to have a significant impact on the state, regional, or local economy.

The Wisconsin Governor's Council on Workforce Investment or local WDB determines if an industry sector or occupation is in-demand, using state and regional business and labor market projections, including the use of labor market information.

WIOA Sec. 3(23)



Workforce Preparation Activities

Workforce preparation activities are activities, programs, or services designed to help individuals acquire a combination of basic academic skills, critical thinking skills, digital literacy skills, and self-management skills, including competencies in utilizing resources, using information, working with others, understanding systems, and obtaining skills necessary for successful transition into and completion of postsecondary education or training, or employment.

WIOA Sec. 203(17)



Positive Social and Civic Behaviors

Positive social and civic behaviors focus on one or more of the following areas:

  • developing a positive attitude;
  • building self-esteem;
  • developing an openness to work with individuals from diverse backgrounds;
  • maintaining healthy lifestyles, including being alcohol- and drug-free;
  • maintaining positive social relationships with responsible adults and peers,
  • contributing to the well-being of one's community, including voting;
  • maintaining a commitment to learning and academic success;
  • avoiding delinquency; and
  • developing positive job attitudes and work-related soft skills.

20 CFR § 681.530



Career Awareness

Career Awareness means the process of developing knowledge of the variety of occupations/careers available, their skill requirements, working conditions, training prerequisites, and job opportunities across a wide range of industry sectors.

TEGL 21-16, p. 22



Career Exploration

Career Exploration means the process in which youth choose an educational path/training or a job that fits their interests, skills, and abilities.

TEGL 21-16, p. 22



Career Counseling

Career Counseling (or Career Guidance) means providing advice and support in making decisions about what career paths to take.

TEGL 21-16, p. 22



Labor Market Information

Labor market information is the body of knowledge that describes the relationship between labor demand and supply. It identifies in-demand industries and occupations and provides knowledge of job market expectations – such as education and skill requirements and potential earnings.

20 CFR § 651.10; TEGL 21-16, p.22

 
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